There were several interesting sounding essays in Word and Image in Japanese Cinema (2000) edited by Dennis Washburn and Carole Cavanaugh. However, there were a few that didn't appeal to me and I skipped those (in Part One:"The Word Before the Image: Criticism, the Screenplay, and Regulation of Meaning in Prewar Japanese Film Culture" by Aaron Gerow and "The Cinematic Art of Higuchi Ichiyo's Takekurabe (Comparing Heights, 1895-1896)"). So I started with Arthur Nolletti Jr.'s essay "Once More and Gosho's Romanticism in the Early Occupation Period" in the first section, "Wording the Image/Imaging the Word," which made me interested in seeking out this film and others by Gosho (of who Nolletti has written a full volume about). The next essay I read was Linda C. Ehrlich's "The Taunt of the Gods: Reflections on Woman In The Dunes," which is one of my favorite Japanese films of the New Wave period. I skipped Kathe Geist's essay "Adapting The Makioka Sisters, since I read a version of it in a book of essays on Kon Ichikawa. Charles Shiro Inouye essay "In the Show House of Modernity: Exhaustive Listing in Itami Juzo's Tanpopo," was more expansive than the title suggests. Part Two is called "Reflections of Identity" and opens with Allan Tansman's "Where's Mama? The Sobbing Yakuza of Hasegawa Shin," Tansman mostly focuses on Mothers Under the Eyelids written in 1929 and staged hundreds of times and filmed repeatedly between 1931 and 1936. In another insightful piece by Keiko I. McDonald was "Saving the Chirldren: Films by the Most 'Casual' of Directors, Shimizu Hiroshi." Michale Raine looks at the popularity of a Japanese icon in "Ishihara Yujiro: Youth, Celebrity, and the Male Body in late-1950s Japan." Richard Torrrrance takes on the monumental task of evaluating of a 48 film series in "Otoko wa tsurai yo: Nostalgia or Parodic Realism?" I thought Carole Cavanaugh's essay, "A Working Ideology for Hiroshima: Imamura Shohei's Black Rain" was one of the most interesting essays in the book. Cavanaugh's thesis is that Imamura uses realism to create an "atmosphere of authenticity" to promote a view that suggest Japanese victimization and nonresponsiblity for the war in the film. That is the reading I came away with and was surprised, because in the past Imamura had made documentaries that questioned the Japanese aggression by interviewing non repatriated soldiers still living in SE Asia as well as profiled a comfort woman. Cavanugh makes several statue observations and makes me want to go back and revisit the film sometime. Edward Fuller's essay "Piss and Run: Or How Ozu Does a Number on SCAP" is equally fascinating. He is suggesting that Ozu succeeded in delivering "an extraordinarily blunt and indeed xenophobic message" to his Japanese audience by having the war orphan wet a futon that is patched to looked like an American flag, which is hung upside down to dry in the film! Perhaps, the most enlightening essay in terms of explaining what ideas a director was trying to suggest in a film comes from Leger Gridon's excellent essay about Oshima In The Realm of the Senses, "In the Realm of the Censors: Cultural Boundaries and the Poetics of the Forbidden." The last essay I read was also another compelling rad from one of the editors Dennis Washburn, in "The Arrest of Time: The Mythic Transgressions of Vengeance Is Mine (Imamura Shohei)." I skipped the last essay, Susan J. Napier's "The Frenzy of Metamorphosis: The body of Japanese Pornographic Animation." There were some really interesting essay mixed in with others that were of little interest to me. I suppose this is best used as a reference or for specialists.