Historian John W. Dower has recently published a collection of fascinating essays related to modern Japanese history called, Ways Of Forgetting, Ways Of Remembering: Japan In The Modern World (2012). The first essay, "E. H. Norman, Japan, and the Uses of History," is an interesting look at an obscure Canadian historian and diplomat who died in 1957 by suicide from pressure coming from the U.S. because of early leftist views and associations. Dower discusses reservations about modernization by calling attention to the questions Norman raised in his work on modern Japan. The second essay in the collection, "Race, Language, and War in Two Cultures: World War II in Asia," has many of the same observations and concerns that he pursed in his book, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. The third chapter, "Japan's Beautiful War," was written to accompany a 2005 exhibition catalog at Bard College curated by Jacqueline Atkins that looked at the beautification of the war through the introduction of martial themes into textiles worn in the form of traditional garments. "'An Aptitude for Being Unloved': War And Memory In Japan," follows this chapter. It focuses on war memory and appeared in a 2002 book devoted to war crimes and denial in the twentieth century. Dower characterizes memory as following one of the five following forms: (1) denial (2) evocations of moral (or immoral) equivalence (3) victim consciousness (4) bi-national (U.S.-Japan) sanitizing of Japanese war crimes, and (5) popular discourses acknowledging guilt and responsibility. It is a fascinating discussion of national memory and historical perspectives. Chapter five, "The Bombed: Hiroshimas and Nagasakis In Japanese Memory," is spurred by Dower's idea that there is no monolithic way to of remembering Hiroshima and Nagasaki, hence the title-it was published in a special anniversary issue on the bombs in a journal in 1995. This is followed by a memoir of the bombing at Hiroshima, chapter six, " A Doctor's Diary Of Hiroshima, Fifty Years Later." This engaging account of a survivor was published in English in 1955 by Michiko Hachiya. Hachiya covered the weeks between August 8th and the end of September-Dowers wrote this as an introduction to the reissue of the diary. Next up, chapter seven, "How A Genuine Democracy Should Celebrate Its Past," in which Dowers discusses the problems associated with the heroic narrative of dropping atomic bombs on Japan. Chapter eight is entitled, "Peace And Democracy In Two Systems: External Policy And Internal Conflict," in which Dowers tries to come to terms historically with two systems and the dialectical relationship between domestic and international structures, policies, and conflicts. ""Mocking Misery: Grassroots Satire In Defeated Japan," is a missing chapter from his influential and thorough book on the occupation, Embracing Defeat. "Lessons from Japan About War's Aftermath" is editorial that again focuses on the misuses of history in regard to the U.S. "war on terror" and invasion of Iraq following the events of 9-11. The last chapter, "The Other Japanese Occupation" draws a connection between America's invasion of Iraq with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. All in all, this collection has a number of thoroughly researched and interesting and provocative perspectives on Japan since the end of WWII.